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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Contributions to Science

<i>Rugoglobigerina rugosa</i> (Plummer). B. Huber photo.

Foraminifera and their Classification

Foraminifera are tiny, single-celled, shell-constructing organisms that inhabit a wide range of marine environments from the intertidal zone to the deep sea in all regions of the world.

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Boris Laiming in wet lab

Oil Exploration

Cushman was one of the first scientists to use forams in support of oil exploration.

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The Sharon Laboratory was a research facility designed and built by Dr. Cushman in 1923


Sharon laboratory, the center of foraminiferal research in the early part of the twentieth century, trained a generation of researchers.

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Cover of Journal of Foraminiferal Research

Publications and Bibliography

Joseph Cushman published hundreds of papers in his lifetime. His textbook on foraminifera was the first and only for many years.

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