Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Geologic Time The Story of a Changing Earth
Presented by the Department of Paleobiology.
The Pennsylvanian
Contents
Overview
Pennsylvanian Animal Life
Plant Life and the Coal Forests
Pennsylvanian Climate and Tectonics
Evidence
Annularia stellata, an extinct tree-like horsetail
learn more
sample
Carboniferous Tree Fern
Fossil spider
references and links
Foundational Concepts
Dating Methods
Earth Processes
Life Processes
Privacy Statement Copyright
Glossary Credits Email Us


References:
Behrensmeyer, A. K., J. D. Damuth, W. A. DiMichele, R. Potts, H.-D. Sues, and S. L. Wing. 1992. Terrestrial Ecosystems through Time: Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 568 pp.

Labandeira, C. C. 1998. Early history of arthropod and vascular plant association. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 26:329–377.

Labandeira, C. C. 1999. Insects and other hexapods. Pp. 603–624 in Encyclopedia of Paleontology, R. Singer, editor. Chicago: Fitzroy-Dearborn.

Labandeira, C. C. 2001. The rise and diversification of insects. Pp. 82–88 in Palaeobiology II, D. E. G. Briggs and P. R. Crowther, editors. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

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Overview | Pennsylvanian Animal Life | Plant Life and the Coal Forests
Pennsylvanian Climate and Tectonics



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