Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Geologic Time The Story of a Changing Earth
Presented by the Department of Paleobiology.
The Permian
Contents
Overview
Terrestrial Animal Life and Evolution of Herbivores
Permian Terrestrial Floras
The Marine Realm and The End-Permian Extinction
, Climate, and the Formation of Pangea
Evidence
Late Permian brachiopods
learn more
sample
Permian reef
Dimetrodon
Ophiacodon
Labidosaurus
Edaphosaur
Cotylorhynchus
Brachiopod
references and links
Foundational Concepts
Dating Methods
Earth Processes
Life Processes
Privacy Statement Copyright
Glossary Credits Email Us


References:
Beck, A., and C. C. Labandeira. 1998. Early Permian insect folivory on a giganitopterid-dominated riparian flora from north-central Texas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 142 (3/4):139–173

Behrensmeyer, A. K., J. D. Damuth, W. A. DiMichele, R. Potts, H.-D. Sues, and S. L. Wing. 1992. Terrestrial Ecosystems through Time: Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 568 pp.

Carroll, Robert. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: Freeman and Company.

Labandeira, C. C. 1997. Permian pollen eating. Science 277:1422–1423.

Labandeira, C. C. 1998. Early history of arthropod and vasular plant association. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 26:329–377.

Links:
Department of Paleobiology Life of a Vertebrate Fossil http://paleobiology.si.edu/LVF/index.htm


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Overview | Terrestrial Animal Life and Evolution of Herbivores | Permian Terrestrial Floras
The Marine Realm and The End-Permian Extinction | Tectonics, Climate, and the Formation of Pangea



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