The main pen and ink technques are: 1) stipple (an example of the stipple technique can be seen on the previous page) and; 2) line (an example of the line technique can be seen below).
In a stipple drawing, each stipple should be completely round, and no two stipples should touch. Shading is achieved by increasing the number of stipples in a given area. If using technical pens, sizes 3x0 for stipples and 2x0 for the outline of the specimen, with the illustration planned for a 50% reduction work well. The closer the structure of a specimen is to a viewer, the darker the line delineating that structure should be. The size of the stipple in the shading remains constant.
|Sydney Prentice used the pen and ink thick / thin line (eyelash technique) to prepare this illustration of a fossil whale for Smithsonian curator Remington Kellogg. Prentice used a crowquill dip pen with a flexible nib. The flexible nib allows the artist to vary the thickness of the line by the pressure applied to the pen by the artist.|