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Ruth Todd holding young chickens at the Cushman home, probably during WWII

Ruth Todd: Assistant for the Ages

Ruth Todd's 1940 letter to Cushman inquiring about a job and Cushman's response.

Richard Cifelli and Ruth Todd correspondence about the life and work of Joseph Cushman.

Selected correspondence between Ruth Todd and G. Arthur Cooper.

Al  Loeblich and Helen Tappan with Joseph Cushman at the Sharon Laboratory in 1946

Al Loeblich and Helen Tappan: the Next Generation

Selected correspondence between Joseph Cushman and Al Loeblich, and Joseph Cushman and Helen Tappan.

Frances L. Parker at her microscope. Photo taken in 1980 by E. Vincent.

Frances Parker: worker, student, teacher, Boss

Selected correspondence between Joseph Cushman and Frances Parker.

Ruth Todd and Fran Parker 1980s correspondence about Cushman's life and work.

T. Wayland Vaughan with Joseph Cushman in 1929

T. Wayland Vaughan: USGS boss and mentor

Selected correspondence between Joseph Cushman and T. Wayland Vaughan.

Lloyd Henbest with Joseph Cushman in 1948

Lloyd Henbest: collaborator, champion of the Cushman Collection cause

Ray Bassler of the Smithsonian Institution

Ray Bassler: the Smithsonian connection strengthens

Selected correspondence between Joseph Cushman and Ray Bassler.

Mary Rathbun (photograph from Wikipedia)

Mary Rathbun: the Smithsonian connection begins

Excerpts from Cushman's letters to Mary Rathbun selected by Ruth Todd for her biographical work of Cushman's life.

Charles Schuchert, courtesy of Yale Museum

Charles Schuchert: Early champion of Cushman

Selected correspondence between Joseph Cushman and Charles Schuchert.

Marland Oil quarterly 1922

Marland Oil: The means for independence

"In September, 1921 I went to Mexico as Chief Geologist for the Marland [Oil Company] of Mexico. We found some 1500 feet of shale which all looked alike covering most of the large tract which they had under lease. I was asked to find some method whereby the shale section could be subdivided either lithologically or by other means in order to learn something of the structural conditions of the region. We drilled some shallow wells and in examining the cuttings I found no diagnostic minerals but observed a few foraminifera. In scouting around I learned that a few attempts had been made by oil companies to use micro fauna but no company had gone into an extensive program. In looking over the field I learned that Dr. Cushman had done the most work with Foraminifera up to that time. If I remember correctly Mr. Oliver and I came to Sharon during the summer of 1922 and made temporary arrangements for Dr. Cushman to examine the micro-fossils which were to be obtained from a series of shallow wells the company had agreed to drill on the assumption that micro fossils would be successful in determining the structural conditions of the area. [This work led to the] location of the Limon oil field in Mexico, which produced oil in considerable quantity."

(Excerpt from Earl Trager's recollections about the use of forams in oil exploration. Mr. Oliver was the head of Marland Oil at the time.)

Europe and the world: International collaborators

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