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Department of Paleobiology

  • Douglas H. Erwin
  • Curator of Paleozoic Invertebrates
  • Phone:   202-633-1324
  • Fax:   202-786-2832
  • E-mail Address:   erwindat SI dot edu
  • Mailing Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    PO Box 37012, MRC 121
    Washington, DC 20013-7012
  • Shipping Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    National Museum of Natural History
    10th & Constitution NW
    Washington, DC 20560-0121


Ph.D. University of California, Santa Barbara, 1985
A.B. Colgate University, 1980

Research Interests

Most of my current research focuses on major evolutionary transitions and evolutionary innovation. I am currently attempting to understand both the role of developmental invention in generating novel morphologies and how new niches are constructed to facilitate the persistence of these new inventions. Much o f my work has focused on the events of the early radiation of animals about 540 million years ago, but I am beginning to look at other events as well.

Causes and Consequences of the end-Permian Mass Extinction
The great end-Permian mass extinction occurred 252 million years ago, eliminating about half of all marine families, and perhaps as many as 95% of all marine invertebrate species. Significant extinctions occurred on land as well among tetrapods, insects and plants. The causes of this mass extinction are still unclear, but work over the past decade has dramatically reduced the number of hypotheses. I recently published a book by Princeton University Press, entitled: “EXTINCTION: How Life on Earth Nearly Died 250 Million years ago�. Together with Sam Bowring of MIT and Jin Yugan of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and their colleagues, we have been trying to understand the rate and causes of the marine component of this mass extinction, particularly in south China, where there are numerous excellent sections across the Permo-Triassic boundary. In 1998 we showed that the mass extinction occurred in less than 500,000 years (Bowring et al., 1998) and showed the catastrophic nature of the extinction at the Meishan section in South China (Jin et al., 2000). Currently we are working on tests of proposed impact signatures for the extinction.

Biotic Recovery Following Mass Extinctions
My work on the end-Permian mass extinction stems from my interest in evolutionary innovations, and particularly in those following the great mass extinctions. These events are classically seen as generators of evolutionary novelty, and I am interested in the patterns of survival and rediversification, how rapidly these changes occur, and how ecological assemblages re-form. Although I am interested in the recoveries after all of the major mass extinctions, my own work has focused on the Early Triassic, and particularly on gastropods. Gastropods exhibit an interesting pattern in which some lineages disappear from the fossil record during the late Permian, prior to the mass extinction, and reappear during the recovery phase. This Lazarus phenomenon provides some important clues to the relative importance of continuing environmental disturbance vs. ecological retardation. Together with colleagues at the Santa Fe Institute, I am also developing models of biotic recovery that we can test with data from the fossil record.

Evolutionary History of Paleozoic Gastropods

My systematic emphasis is Paleozoic gastropods, primarily those of the Permian and Triassic, and I continued to analyze the patterns of extinction across the Permo-Triassic boundary, and the patterns of recovery in the Triassic. Alex Nutzel, a recent post-doc, and I are developing a database of Permian and Triassic gastropod occurrences to examine extinction and recovery patterns in greater detail. Peter Wagner and I have recently studied the evolutionary patterns of the Paleozoic gastropods. This work indicates that functional constraints funneled Paleozoic gastropods into a limited number of morphotypes, which consequently evolved multiple times through the Paleozoic. In the aftermath of the Permian mass extinction, the ecological world they faced had changed so completely that many of these morphotypes were no longer viable and disappeared.

EARTHTIME Initiative
High-resolution geochronology now provides the opportunity for paleontologists and geologists to study evolutionary and geological rates in deep time to a much higher degree of precision than was previously possible. Sam Bowring at MIT and I have initiated a community-wide effort to develop a high-resolution geological time scale over the coming decade. More information is on the EARTHTIME website:

Research Assistants, Current and Former Post-doctoral Fellows, and Students


  • Gunther Eble (1997- 2000)
  • Nigel Hughes(1992-1993) Currently Professor, Dept. of Geology, University of California, Riverside
  • Alexander Nützel (1998-1999)
  • Christopher Sidor (2001)
  • Sherman Suter (1994-1995, 1996-1998)Currently Associate Book Review Editor, Science
  • Peter Wagner (1995-1996) Currently Assistant Curator, Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
  • Matthew Wills (1995) Currently Dept. of Biology, University of Bath, UK
  • Thomas Olzewski, (2002-2003) Currently Assistant Professor, Dept. of Geology Texas A & M University


  • Peter Wagner

Summer Interns

  • William Pastor (2002)
  • Carla Nappi (1997)
  • Eugene Hunt (1995)
  • Phillip Gottchalk (1995, 1996)
  • Jonathon Marcot (1994, 1997)
  • Matthew Kosnik (1994, 1996)
  • Stephen Schellenberg (1993)


  • Associate, Earth Systems History Program, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research
  • Part-Time resident faculty, Santa Fe Institute. and Chair, Science Steering Committee
  • Honorary member, Academic Committee, Laboratory of Earth Surface System (China Univ. Geosciences), P. R. China.


  • Charles Schuchert Award, Paleontological Society, 1996
  • Overseas Visiting Scholar, St. John’s College, Cambridge University, Lent Term

Other Committees

  • NASA: Solar System Exploration Subcommittee, 2003-.
  • NASA: Planetary Protection Committee, 2004 -

Editorial Service

  • Member, Board of Reviewing Editors, Science, Oct. 2003-
  • Member, Faculty of Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of 1000, (, 2003-
  • Member of Editorial Board, Geobiology, 2003-
  • Member of Editorial Board, Journal of China Univ. Geosciences, 2003-
  • Member of Editorial Board, Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 2003-
  • Member of Editorial Board, American Naturalist, 2002-
  • Member of Editorial Board, Evolution & Development, 1999-
  • Co-Editor, Paleobiology, 1995-2001

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Wood, Rachel and Erwin, Douglas H. 2018. Innovation not recovery: dynamic redox promotes metazoan radiations, Biological Reviews, 93(2):863-873

Darroch, Simon A. F., Smith, Emily F., Laflamme, Marc and Erwin, Douglas H. 2018. Ediacaran Extinction and Cambrian Explosion, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 33(9):653-663

Erwin, Douglas H. 2018. Conservation Paleobiology. Science and Practice edited by Gregory P. Dietl and Karl W. Flessa, University of Chicago Press, 2017. Price: $40, 9780226506722, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 33(8):572-

Summons, Roger E. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2018. Chemical clues to the earliest animal fossils Steroid biomarkers show that the Ediacaran fossil Dickinsonia was an animal, Science, 361(6408):1198-1199

Erwin, Douglas H. 2017. Eric Davidson and deep time, History and philosophy of the life sciences, 39(4):29-29

McInerney, James O. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2017. The role of public goods in planetary evolution, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 375(2109):-

Erwin, Douglas H. 2017. The topology of evolutionary novelty and innovation in macroevolution, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 372(1735):-

Erwin, Douglas H. 2017. Developmental push or environmental pull? The causes of macroevolutionary dynamics, History and philosophy of the life sciences, 39(4):36-36

Hoffman, Paul F., Abbot, Dorian S., Ashkenazy, Yosef, Benn, Douglas I., Brocks, Jochen J., Cohen, Phoebe A., Cox, Grant M., Creveling, Jessica R., Donnadieu, Yannick, Erwin, Douglas H., Fairchild, Ian J., Ferreira, David, Goodman, Jason C., Halverson, Galen P., Jansen, Malte F., Le Hir, Guillaume, Love, Gordon D., Macdonald, Francis A., Maloof, Adam C., Partin, Camille A., Ramstein, Gilles, Rose, Brian E. J., Rose, Catherine V., Sadler, Peter M., Tziperman, Eli, et al. 2017. Snowball Earth climate dynamics and Cryogenian geology-geobiology, Science Advances, 3(11):-

Chipman, Ariel D. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2017. The Evolution of Arthropod Body Plans: Integrating Phylogeny, Fossils, and Development-An Introduction to the Symposium, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 57(3):450-454

Chen, Jun, Shen, Shu-zhong, Li, Xian-hua, Xu, Yi-gang, Joachimski, Michael M., Bowring, Samuel A., Erwin, Douglas H., Yuan, Dong-xun, Chen, Bo, Zhang, Hua, Wang, Yue, Cao, Chang-qun, Zheng, Quan-feng and Mu, Lin. 2016. High-resolution SIMS oxygen isotope analysis on conodont apatite from South China and implications for the end-Permian mass extinction, Palaeogeography palaeoclimatology palaeoecology, 448(26):38-

Erwin, Douglas H. 2016. Eric, evolution and bodyplans, Developmental biology, 412(2):S33-S34

Bhattacharya, Debashish, Agrawal, Shobhit, Aranda, Manuel, Baumgarten, Sebastian, Belcaid, Mahdi, Drake, Jeana L., Erwin, Douglas H., Foret, Sylvian, Gates, Ruth D., Gruber, David F., Kamel, Bishoy, Lesser, Michael P., Levy, Oren, Liew, Yi Jin, MacManes, Matthew, Mass, Tali, Medina, Monica, Mehr, Shaadi, Meyer, Eli, Price, Dana C., Putnam, Hollie M., Qiu, Huan, Shinzato, Chuya, Shoguchi, Eiichi, Stokes, Alexander J., et al. 2016. Comparative genomics explains the evolutionary success of reef-forming corals, eLife, 5():-

Reinhard , Christopher T., Planavsky, Noah J., Olson, Stephanie L., Lyons, Timothy W. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2016. Earth's oxygen cycle and the evolution of animal life, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(32):8933-8938

Carrasquillo, Anthony J., Cao, Changqun, Erwin, Douglas H. and Summons, Roger E. 2016. Non-detection of C-60 fullerene at two mass extinction horizons, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 176():18-25

Darroch, Simon A. F., Boag, Thomas H., Racicot, Rachel A., Tweedt, Sarah, Mason, Sara J., Erwin, Douglas H. and Laflamme, Marc. 2016. A mixed Ediacaran-metazoan assemblage from the Zaris Sub-basin, Namibia, Palaeogeography palaeoclimatology palaeoecology, 459():198-208

Erwin, Douglas H. 2016. The Origin of Higher Taxa: Palaeobiological, Developmental and Ecological Perspectives.- by T. S. Kemp, Systematic Biology, 65(3):558-559

Arendt, Detlev, Musser, Jacob M., Baker, Clare V. H., Bergman, Aviv, Cepko, Connie, Erwin, Douglas H., Pavlicev, Mihaela, Schlosser, Gerhard, Widder, Stefanie, Laubichler, Manfred D. and Wagner, Gü. 2016. The origin and evolution of cell types, Nature Reviews.Genetics, 17():744-757

Erwin, Douglas H. 2016. "Wonderful Life Revisited: Chance and Contingency in the Ediacaran-Cambrian Radiation". Pp. 279-298 in Chance in Evolution (). University of Chicago Press

Hull, Pincelli M., Darroch, Simon A. F. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2015. Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems, Nature, 528(7582):345-351

Erwin, Douglas H. 2015. David M. Raup (1933–2015), Nature, 524(7563):36-36

Erwin, Douglas H. 2015. Eric Davidson (1937–2015), Current Biology, 25(20):R968-R969

Erwin, Douglas H. 2015. Was the Ediacaran–Cambrian radiation a unique evolutionary event?, Paleobiology, 41(01):1-15

Tweedt, Sarah M. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2015. "Origin of Metazoan Developmental Toolkits and Their Expression in the Fossil Record". Pp. 47-77 in Evolutionary Transitions to Multicellular Life (Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki and Nedelcu, Aurora M.). Springer Netherlands

Erwin, Douglas H. 2015. Novelty and Innovation in the History of Life, Current Biology, 25(19):-

Erwin, Douglas H. 2015. Eric Davidson (1937-2015), Science, 350(6260):517-

Erwin, Douglas H. 2015. Early metazoan life: divergence, environment and ecology, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 370(1684):20150036

Erwin, Douglas H. 2015. A public goods approach to major evolutionary innovations, Geobiology, 13(4):308-315

Darroch, Simon A. F., Sperling, Erik A., Boag, Thomas H., Racicot, Rachel A., Mason, Sara J., Morgan, Alex S., Tweedt, Sarah M., Myrow, Paul, Johnston, David T., Erwin, Douglas H. and Laflamme, Marc. 2015. Biotic replacement and mass extinction of the Ediacara biota, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1814):20151003

Day, Michael O., Ramezani, Jahandar, Bowring, Samuel A., Sadler, Peter M., Erwin, Douglas H., Abdala, Fernando and Rubidge, Bruce S. 2015. When and how did the terrestrial mid-Permian mass extinction occur? Evidence from the tetrapod record of the Karoo Basin, South Africa, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1811)

Simpson, Carl and Erwin, Douglas H. 2014. Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation, Science, 344(6189):1234-1235

Erwin, Douglas H. and Valentine, James.2013. The Cambrian explosion : the construction of animal biodiversity. Roberts and Company

Odling-Smee, John, Erwin, Douglas H., Palkovacs, Eric P., Feldman, Marcus W. and Laland, Kevin N. 2013. Niche Construction Theory: A Practical Guide for Ecologists, The Quarterly review of biology, 88(1):3-28

Laflamme, Marc, Darroch, Simon A. F., Tweedt, Sarah M., Peterson, Kevin J. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2012. The End of the Ediacara Biota: Extinction, Biotic Replacement, or Cheshire Cat?, Gondwana Research, 23(2):558-573

Erwin, Douglas H. 2011. Evolutionary uniformitarianism, Developmental biology, 357(1):27-34

Erwin, Douglas H., Laflamme, Marc, Tweedt, Sarah M., Sperling, Erik A., Pisani, Davide and Peterson, Kevin J. 2011. The Cambrian Conundrum: Early Divergence and Later Ecological Success in the Early History of Animals, Science, 334(6059):1091-1097

Erwin, Douglas H. 2011. A Paleontological Look at History, Cliodynamics, 2(1):27-39

Erwin, Douglas H. and Tweedt, Sarah M. 2011. Ecological drivers of the Ediacaran-Cambrian diversification of Metazoa, Evolutionary Ecology, 26(2):417-433

Erwin, Douglas H. 2011. Novelties that change carrying capacity, Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 318(6):460-465

Shen, Shu-Zhong, Crowley, James L., Wang, Yue, Bowring, Samuel A., Erwin, Douglas H., Sadler, Peter M., Cao, Chang-qun, Rothman, Daniel H., Henderson, Charles M., Ramezani, Jahandar, Zhang, Hua, Shen, Yanan, Wang, Xiang-Dong, Wang, Wei, Mu, Lin, Li, Wen-Zhong, Tang, Yue-Gang, Liu, Xiao-Lei, Liu, Lu-Jun, Zeng, Yong, Jiang, Yao-Fa and Jin, Yu-Gan. 2011. Calibrating the End-Permian Mass Extinction, Science, 334(6061):1367-1372

Erwin, Douglas H. 2011. Macroevolution: Dynamics of Diversity, Current Biology, 21(24):R1000-R1001

Bush, Andrew M., Bambach, Richard K. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2011. "Ecospace Utilization During the Ediacaran Radiation and the Cambrian Eco-explosion". Pp. 111-133 in Quantifying the Evolution of Early Life : Numerical Approaches to the Evaluation of Fossils and Ancient Ecosystems (Laflamme, Marc, Schiffbauer, James D. and Dornbos, Stephen Q.). Springer Netherlands

Krakauer, David C., Collins, James P., Erwin, Douglas H., Flack, Jessica C., Fontana, Walter, Laubichler, Manfred D., Prohaska, Sonja J., West, Geoffrey B. and Stadler, Peter F. 2011. The challenges and scope of theoretical biology, Journal of theoretical biology, 276(1):269-276

Maloof, Adam C., Rose, Catherine V., Beach, Robert, Samuels, Bradley M., Calmet, Claire C., Erwin, Douglas H., Poirier, Gerald R., Yao, Nan and Simons, Frederik J. 2010. Possible animal-body fossils in pre-Marinoan limestones from South Australia, Nature Geoscience, 3:653-659

Erwin, Douglas H. 2009. La terre en pleines transformations, La Recherche, 428:39-42

Bennington, J. Bret, DiMichele, William A., Badgley, Catherine, Bambach, Richard K., Barrett, Paul M., Behrensmeyer, Anna K., Bobe, Rene, Burnham, Robyn J., Daeschler, Edward B., Van Dam, Jan, Eronen, Jussi T., Erwin, Douglas H., Finnegan, Seth, Holland, Steven M., Hunt, Gene, Jablonski, David, Jackson, Stephen T., Jacobs, Bonnie E., Kidwell, Susan M., Koch, Paul L., Kowalewski, Michal J., Labandeira, Conrad C., Looy, Cindy V., Lyons, Sara K., Novack-Gottshall, Philip M., et al. 2009. Critical Issues of Scale in Paleoecology, Palaios, 24(1-2):1-4

Krakauer, D. C., Page, K. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2009. Diversity,dilemmas and monopolies of niche construction, American Naturalist, 173():26-40

Erwin, Douglas H. 2009. Climate as a Driver of Evolutionary Change, Current Biology, 19(14):R575-R583

Erwin, Douglas H. 2009. Early origin of the bilaterian developmental toolkit, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 364(1527):2253-2261

Davidson, E. H. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2009. An Integrated View of Precambrian Eumetazoan Evolution, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 74:65-80

Davidson, Eric H. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2009. Evolutionary innovation and stability in animal gene networks, Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 314B(3):182-186

Erwin, Douglas H. and Davidson, E. H. 2009. The evolution of hierarchical gene regulatory networks, Nature Reviews Genetics, 10:141-148

Erwin, Douglas H. 2009. A call to the custodians of deep time, Nature, 462(7271):282-283

Olszewski, Thomas D. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2009. Change and Stability in Permian Brachiopod Communities from Western Texas, Palaios, 24(1):27-40

Erwin, Douglas H. 2008. Extinction as the loss of evolutionary history, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105:11520-11527

Erwin, Douglas H. 2008. Macroevolution of ecosystem engineering, niche construction and diversity, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23(6):304-310

Clauset, A. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2008. The evolution and distribution of species body size, Science, 321:399-401

Dunne, J. A., Williams, R. J., Martinez, N. D., Wood, R. A. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2008. Compilation and network analysis of Cambrian Food webs, PLoS Biology, 6(4):693-708

Erwin, Douglas H. 2008. Wonderful Ediacarans, wonderful cnidarians?, Evolution & development, 10(3):263-264

Bambach, Richard K., Bush, A. M. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2007. Autecology and the realized ecospace of marine metazoa, Palaeontology, 50:1-22

Zhang, X. -L, Shu, D. -G and Erwin, Douglas H. 2007. Cambrian naraoiids (arthropoda): Morphology, ontogeny, systematics, and evolutionary relationships, Journal of Paleontology, 81(5):1-52

Erwin, Douglas H. 2007. Endless forms most beautiful, Artificial Life, 13(1):87-89

Bambach, Richard K., Bush, Andrew M. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2007. Autecology and the filling of ecospace: Key metazoan radiations, Palaeontology, 50:1-22

Erwin, Douglas H. 2007. Survival of the Fittest, American Scientist, 95():76-77

Zhang, X. L., Shu, D. G. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2007. Cambrian Naraoiids (Arthropoda), Journal of Paleontology Memoir, 68:52

Erwin, Douglas H. 2007. Disparity: Morphological patterns and developmental context, Palaeontology, 50:57-73

Erwin, Douglas H. 2007. Increasing returns, ecological feedback and the Early Triassic recovery, Palaeoworld, 16:9-15

Jackson, Jeremy B. C. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2006. What Can We Learn About Ecology and Evolution From the Fossil Record?, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, (6):322-328

Erwin, Douglas H. 2006. Catastrophes and Lesser Calamities, Palaeontological Society Newsletter, (61):112-113

Wagner, Peter J. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2006. Patterns of convergence in general shell form among Paleozoic gastropods, Paleobiology, 32:315-336

Davidson, E. H. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2006. Gene regulatory networks and the evolution of animal body plans, Science, 311:796-800

Erwin, Douglas H. 2006. Quick Guide: Contingency and Constraint: A Cosmic Convergence?, Current Biology, 16(19):R825-R826

Erwin, Douglas H. 2006. Opportunities and Challenges of a highly resolved Geological time scale, Geochronology: Emerging Opportunities (Paleontological Society Papers), 12:171-180

Tong, J. N., Zhou, X. G., Erwin, Douglas H., Zuo, J. X. and Zhao, L. S. 2006. Fossil fishes from the Lower Triassic of Mahiashan, Chaohu, Anhui Province, China, Journal of Paleontology, 80:146-161

Erwin, Douglas H. 2006. Evolutionary contingency, Current Biology, 16(19):R825-R826

Erwin, Douglas H. and Davidson, Eric H. 2006. Response to comment on "Gene regulatory networks and the evolution of animal body plans", Science, 313(5788):761c-761c

Erwin, Douglas H. 2006. Presentation of the paleontological society medal to Andrew H. Knoll, Journal of Paleontology, 80(4):801-801

Erwin, Douglas H. 2006. "The developmental origins of animal bodyplans". Pp. 159-197 in Neoproterozoic Geobiology and Paleobiology, (Shuhai, Xiao and Kauffman, A. J.). Springer

Erwin, Douglas H.2006. Extinction! How Life Nearly Ended 250 Million Years ago. Princeton University Press

Erwin, Douglas H. 2006. Dates and Rates: Temporal resolution in the deep time Stratigraphic record, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 34:569-590

Erwin, Douglas H. 2005. "Robustness in the history of life?". Pp. 191-205 in Robust Design. A repertoire of Biological, Ecological and Engineering case studies, SFI Studies in the Sciences of Complexity (Jen, E.). Oxford University Press

Erwin, Douglas H. 2005. "The origin of animal body plans". Pp. 67-80 in Evolving Form and Function. Fossils and Development: Proceedings of a symposim honoring Adolf Seilacher for his contributions to paleontology, in celebration of his 80th Birthday (Briggs, E. G.). Peabody Museum of Natural History

Flessa, K. W., Jackson, S. T., Aber, J. D., Arthur, M. A., Crane, P. R., Erwin, Douglas H., Graham, R. W., Jackson, B. C., Kidwell, Susan M., Maples, C. G., Peterson, C. H. and Reichman, O. J.2005. The Geological Record of Biosphere Dynamics. National Research Council

Erwin, Douglas H. 2005. Assembling the Tree of Life, American Scientist, 93():365-367

Erwin, Douglas H. 2005. The Plausibility of Life, Cell, 123():1-3

Erwin, Douglas H. 2005. Paleontology: Out of the past and into the future, GeoTimes, 50(12):32-34

Erwin, Douglas H. 2005. Presentation of the Charles Schuchert Award of the Paleontological Society to Peter J. Wagner, III, Journal of the Paleontological Society, 79:828

Erwin, Douglas H. 2005. Development, Ecology, and Environment in the Cambrian Metazoan Radiation, Special Issue of the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 56:24-31

Erwin, Douglas H. 2005. Seeds of diversity, Science, 308(5729):1752-1753

Ward, P. D., Buick, R. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2005. Response to comment on "Abrupt and gradual extinction among late Permian land vertebrates in the Karoo basin, South Africa", Science, 308(5727):-

Ward, P. D., Botha, J., Buick, R., De Kock, M. O., Erwin, Douglas H., Garrison, G. H., Kirschvink, J. L. and Smith, R. 2005. Abrupt and gradual extinction among Late Permian land vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, Science, 307(5710):709-714

Erwin, Douglas H. and Krakauer, D. C. 2004. Insights into innovation, Science, 304(5674):1117-1119

Olszewski, T. D. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2004. Dynamic response of Permian brachiopod communities to long-term environmental change, Nature, 428(6984):738-741

Erwin, Douglas H. 2004. "Mass extinctions and radiations". Pp. 218-228 in Evolution: From Molecules to Ecosystems (Moya, A. and Font, E.). Oxford University Press

Erwin, Douglas H. 2004. One Very Long Argument. Review of "The Structure of Evolutionary Theory" by Stephen Jay Gould, Biology and Philosophy, 19:17-28

Kues, B. S., Batten, R. L., Erwin, Douglas H. and Pan, Hua-Zhang. 2004. A Late Permian Chinese Gastropod Species, Possibly Larval, in the Middle Pennsylvanian of New Mexico, Journal of Paleontology, 78:420-423

Nutzel, A. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2004. Late Triassic (Norian) Gastropods from the Wallowa Terrane (Idaho, U.S.A.), Palaontologische Zeitschrift, 78:361-416

Erwin, Douglas H. 2004. Telling Evolutionary Time: Molecular Clocks and the Fossil Record, The Quarterly Review of Biology, 79():413-414

Erwin, Douglas H. 2004. The Power of Evolution. Review of "Nature. An Economic History" by Geerat Vermeij, Science, 306:1294

Erwin, Douglas H. 2003. Life's solution - Inevitable humans in a lonely universe, Science, 302(5651):1682-1683

Erwin, Douglas H. 2003. Impact at the Permo-Triassic boundary: A critical evaluation, Astrobiology, 3(1):67-74

Pan, H. Z., Erwin, Douglas H., Nutzel, A. and Zhu, Z. S. 2003. Jiangxispira, a new gastropod genus from the Early Triassic of China with remarks on the phylogeny of the Heterostropha at the Permian, Journal of Paleontology, 77(1):44-49

Erwin, Douglas H. and Davidson, E. H. 2002. The last common bilaterian ancestor, Development, 129(13):3021-3032

Sole, R. V., Montoya, J. M. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2002. Recovery after mass extinction: evolutionary assembly in large-scale biosphere dynamics, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 357(1421):697-707

Hua-Zhang, P. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2002. Gastropods from the Permian of Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces, south China, Journal of Paleontology, 76(1):1-49

Nutzel, A. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2001. New Late Triassic gastropods from the Wallowa Terrane (Idaho) and their biogeographic significance, Facies, 45:87-92

Kidder, D. L. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2001. Secular distribution of biogenic silica through the phanerozoic: Comparison of silica-replaced fossils and bedded cherts at the series level, Journal of Geology, 109(4):509-522

Erwin, Douglas H. 2001. Lessons from the past: Biotic recoveries from mass extinctions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(10):5399-5403

Jin, Y. G., Wang, Y., Wang, W., Shang, Q. H., Cao, C. Q. and Erwin, Douglas H. 2000. Pattern of marine mass extinction near the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China, Science, 289(5478):432-436

Nutzel, A., Erwin, Douglas H. and Mapes, R. H. 2000. Identity and phylogeny of the late Paleozoic Subulitoidea (Gastropoda), Journal of Paleontology, 74(4):575-598

Erwin, Douglas H. 2000. Presentation of the Charles Schuchert Award of the Paleontological Society to Charles R. Marshall, Journal of Paleontology, 74(4):758-758

Erwin, Douglas H. 2000. Macroevolution is more than repeated rounds of microevolution, Evolution & development, 2(2):78-84

Erwin, Douglas H. 2000. Lifo's downs and ups, Nature, 404(6774):129-130

Bowring, S. A., Erwin, Douglas H. and Isozaki, Y. 1999. The tempo of mass extinction and recovery: The end-Permian example, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96(16):8827-8828

Erwin, Douglas H. 1999. The origin of bodyplans, American Zoologist, 39(3):617-629

Erwin, Douglas H. 1999. Biospheric perturbations during Gondwanan times: from the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian radiation to the end-Permian crisis, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 28(1):115-127

Valentine, James W., Jablonski, D. and Erwin, Douglas H. 1999. Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian explosion, Development, 126(5):851-859

Glenister, B. F., Wardlaw, B. R., Lambert, L. L., Spinosa, C., Bowring, S. A., Erwin, Douglas H., Menning, M. and Wilde, G. L. 1999. Proposal of Guadalupian and Component Roadian, Wordian, and Capitanian Stages as International Standards for the Middle Permian Series, Permophiles, 34:3-11

Erwin, Douglas H. 1998. The end and the beginning: recoveries from mass extinctions, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 13(9):344-349

Bowring, S. A., Erwin, Douglas H., Jin, Y. G., Martin, M. W., Davidek, K. and Wang, W. 1998. U/Pb Zircon Geochronology and Tempo of the End-Permian Mass Extinction, Science, 280(5366):1039-1045

Erwin, Douglas H. 1998. Evolution - After the end: Recovery from extinction, Science, 279(5355):1324-1325

Bowring, S. A. and Erwin, Douglas H. 1998. A new Look at Evolutionary Rates in Deep Time: Uniting Paleontology and High-Precision Geochronology, GSA Today, 8(9):1-8

Erwin, Douglas H. 1998. Review. "The Origin of Animal Body Plans; A Study in Evolutionary Biology," by Wallace Arthur, Palaios, 13(6):608

Erwin, Douglas H. 1997. Review of "Dinosaur Extinction and the End of an Era: What the Fossils Say," by J. D. Archibald; "Cretaceous-Tertiary Mass Extinction, Biotic and Environmental Changes," by N. MacLeod and G. Keller; and "The Great Dinosaur Extinction Controversy," by C. O, American Paleontologist, 5(1):9-10

Schubert, J. K., Kidder, D. L. and Erwin, Douglas H. 1997. Silica-replaced fossils through the phanerozoic, Geology, 25(11):1031-1034

Erwin, Douglas H. 1997. Paleontological events. Stratigraphic, ecological, and evolutionary implications - Brett,CE, Baird,GC, Science, 278(5339):815-816

Erwin, Douglas H., Valentine, James W. and Jablonski, D. 1997. The origin of animal body plans, American Scientist, 85(2):126-137

Erwin, Douglas H. and Zeigler, W. 1997. Paleontology in Museums and Institutes in the 21st Century, Kleine Senckenbergreihe, (25):69-75

Erwin, Douglas H. and Pan, H. -Z. 1996. "Recoveries and Radiations: Gastropods after the Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction". Pp. 201-221 in Biotic Recovery from Mass Extinction Events (Hart, M. B.). Geological Society of London

Erwin, Douglas H. 1996. "Understanding Biotic Recoveries: Extinction, Survival, and Preservation during the End- Permian Mass Extinction". Pp. 398-418 in Evolutionary Paleobiology (Jablonski, D., Erwin, Douglas H. and Lipps, J. H.). University of Chicago Press

Erwin, Douglas H., Jablonski, D. and Lipps, J. H. 1996. "James W. Valentine, an Appreciation". Pp. 1-17 in Evolutionary Paleobiology (Jablonski, D., Erwin, Douglas H. and Lipps, J. H.). University of Chicago Press

Erwin, Douglas H. 1996. "La Extinción en del Pérmico y su Imacto Evolutivo". Pp. 97-121 in La Lógica de las Extinciones (Agusti, J.). Tusquets Editores, S. A

Erwin, Douglas H. 1996. The mother of mass extinctions, Scientific American, 275(1):72-78

Valentine, James W., Erwin, Douglas H. and Jablonski, D. 1996. Developmental evolution of metazoan bodyplans: The fossil evidence, Developmental biology, 173(2):373-381

Erwin, Douglas H. 1996. "Murchison, Roderick". Pp. 698-699 in Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences (Dasch, E. J.). Macmillan

Erwin, Douglas H. 1995. Review of: H.F. Yin, ed., The Palaeobiogeography of China, Science, 267:2012

Erwin, Douglas H. and Anstey, R. L. 1995. "Speciation in the fossil record". Pp. 11-38 in New Approaches to Speciation in the Fossil Record (Erwin, Douglas H. and Anstey, R. L.). Columbia University Press

Erwin, Douglas H. 1995. "The end-Permian mass extinction". Pp. 20-34 in Permian of the Northern Continents (Scholle, P.). Springer Verlag

Erwin, Douglas H. 1995. "Diversity crises in the geologic past". Pp. 507-516 in Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology ().

Erwin, Douglas H. 1995. "Permian Global Bio-events". Pp. 251-264 in Global Events and Event Stratigraphy (Walliser, O. H.). Springer

Erwin, Douglas H. 1995. Review of: W. Glen, ed., The Mass Extinction Debates: How Science Works in a Crisis, American Scientist, 83:376-377

Kauffman, Erle G. and Erwin, Douglas H. 1995. Surviving mass extinctions, GeoTimes, 40:14-17

Erwin, Douglas H. 1994. Major Morphologic Innovations, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 38(3):281-294

Erwin, Douglas H. 1994. Review of "Basic Questions in Paleontology," by O. H. Schindewolf, American Paleontologist, 2(2):8-9

Kauffman, Erle G. and Erwin, Douglas H. 1994. Igcp-335 - Biotic Recoveries from Mass Extinction - Initial Meetings, Episodes, 17(3):68-73

Stanley, G. D., Gonzalezleon, C., Sandy, M. R., Senowbaridaryan, B., Doyle, P., Tamura, M. and Erwin, Douglas H. 1994. Upper Triassic Invertebrates from the Antimonio Formation, Sonora, Mexico, Journal of Paleontology, 68(4):1-33

Erwin, Douglas H. 1994. Explosions, Extinctions and Evolutionary Trends, The Earth Scientist, 11(1):3-5

Erwin, Douglas H. 1994. The Permo-Triassic Extinction, Nature, 367(6460):231-236

Erwin, Douglas H. 1993. Invertebrate Paleontology, GeoTimes, 38(2):25-25

Erwin, Douglas H. 1993. The Origin of Metazoan Development - a Paleobiological Perspective, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 50(4):255-274

Erwin, Douglas H. and Droser, M. L. 1993. Elvis Taxa, Palaios, 8(6):623-624

Benton, M. J. and Erwin, Douglas H. 1993. "Amphineura and Monoplacophora". Pp. 125-130 in The Fossil Record (Benton, M. J.). Chapman and Hall

Tracey, S., Todd, J. A. and Erwin, Douglas H. 1993. "Mollusca: Gastropoda". Pp. 131-167 in The Fossil Record (Benton, M. J.). Chapman and Hall

Erwin, Douglas H. and Vogel, T. A. 1992. Testing for Causal Relationships between Large Pyroclastic Volcanic-Eruptions and Mass Extinctions, Geophysical Research Letters, 19(9):893-896

Erwin, Douglas H. 1992. Invertebrate Paleontology, GeoTimes, 37(2):31-32

Erwin, Douglas H. 1991. Metazoan Phylogeny and the Cambrian Radiation, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 6(4):131-134

Erwin, Douglas H. 1991. Invertebrate Paleontology, GeoTimes, 36(2):31-32